An Analysis of Socio-Economic Vulnerability of Women Waged Labourers in Agriculture Sector in Punjab, Pakistan
Keywords:Agriculture, Gender, Waged labourers, Discrimination
Rural women are the key players in agricultural development in Pakistan. Despite their considerable role as waged labourers, they are vulnerable under the broader patriarchal societal construct. Considering these facts, this study analyzed the socio-economic vulnerability of women-waged labourers in the agriculture sector in Punjab, Pakistan. A multistage sampling technique was adopted for sample selection. At the initial stage, Punjab province was selected purposively. In the second stage, three cropping zones (rice-wheat, cotton-wheat- maize and vegetable-mixed cropping), and subsequently, in the third stage, three districts (Nankana Sahib, Vehari, and Faisalabad) were selected purposively. Six union councils (two from each district) were selected randomly in the fourth stage. In the fifth stage, 450 respondents, 150 from each district, were interviewed using snowball sampling. A structured interview schedule was developed in accordance with research objectives. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results indicated that the majority of the labourers, 55.0 percent, were 30 and above year’s age group, and 65.1 percent were illiterate. 70.0 percent of respondents were married, and 41.8 percent worked more often on 1-2 km distant agricultural farms. 46.4 percent spend seven and above working hours, and 35.4 percent’s daily wages were Rs. 251-300. 54.0 percent of respondents’ employers preferred the mode of payment as daily wages, while 69.1 percent of labourers preferred the daily mode of payment. 60.9 percent experienced gender disparity mainly due to socio-cultural aspects that contribute to their economic vulnerability. It was recommended that education facilities should be provided in such remote areas. Women’s work should be recognized by eliminating gender disparity in socio-economic aspects in particular and in all aspects in general to upgrade their socio-economic well-being.
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Copyright (c) 2023 Saima Nazir, Izhar Ahmad Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad Maan, Babar Shahbaz
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.