Journal of Education and Social Studies <p>Journal of Education and Social Studies (JESS) is an open access double blind peer reviewed online journal published by Science Impact Publishers. This journal aims to provide an opportunity and a forum to communicate relevant and current issues in the area of education and social sciences. The vast scope of the journal includes all subjects of education, sociology, psychology, journalism, law, human resource management, anthropology, economics, political science, population studies, international relations, religious studies, linguistics and history.</p> Science Impact Publishers en-US Journal of Education and Social Studies 2789-8067 Determinants of Customer Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Switching Cost towards Customer Loyalty in B2B Packaged Food Retail Setting <p>Loyal customers are committed to repeat patronage, making business referrals, and providing publicity for the business. However, rising customer expectations and price consciousness, advancement of technology, lack of product differentiation, and consumer choices have posted more challenges for customer retention. This paper examines the determinants of customer satisfaction in a business-to-business (B2B) packaged food retail setting, with a particular focus on the moderating role of switching cost towards customer loyalty. Using a survey-based approach, data was collected from 382 respondents who were customers of B2B packaged food retailers in Pakistan. The results of the study indicate that product quality, service quality, and price are significant determinants of customer satisfaction. Furthermore, the study finds that switching cost moderates the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. In addition, the results show that switching cost has a significant positive effect on customer loyalty, indicating that customers are more likely to remain loyal to a retailer if the switching cost is higher. The study implies that retailers should focus on providing high-quality products and services at fair prices to enhance customer satisfaction and which leads to customer loyalty. Moreover, retailers should consider implementing switching costs strategies to enhance customer loyalty in the B2B packaged food retail setting. The findings of this study have important implications for the development of effective customer satisfaction and loyalty strategies in the B2B packaged food retail industry.</p> Asif Iqbal Muhammad Amin Hasan Syed Farrukh Bukhari Muhammad Sufyan Ramish Copyright (c) 2023 Asif Iqbal, Muhammad Amin Hasan, Syed Farrukh Bukhari, Muhammad Sufyan Ramish 2023-03-09 2023-03-09 4 1 1 15 10.52223/jess.20234101 The Impact of Sports Optimism on Sports Performance <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">Sports optimism has a significant relationship with sports performance. This study intends to determine the impact of sports optimism on sports performance. The research design was based on co-relational research. It was delimited to the Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan. The players of Ghazi University were considered as a sample of this study. The overall sample size of the study contained 150 players, and a snowball sampling technique was employed. The data was collected through a questionnaire. Suitable statistical techniques such as mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, analysis, and linear regression analysis were applied for data analysis. The level of optimism was evaluated by the life orientation test revised (LOTR) and sports performance. The findings of the study discovered that sports optimism has a significant relationship with sports performance. The players who exhibited more optimistic behaviors are at high risk of performing better even in adverse situations. It was also found that sports optimism has a significant impact on sports performance, both physical and mental. The study concluded that optimism aids the performance of players. The players with a high optimistic level perform better than those with a low optimistic level. </span></p> Ijaz Hussain Masood Ahmad Rameen Fatima Copyright (c) 2023 Ijaz Hussain, Masood Ahmad, Rameen Fatima 2023-03-21 2023-03-21 4 1 16 26 10.52223/jess.20234102 Impact of Allied Factors on Investment Performance, Mediating Role of Investment Decision: Evidence from Investors in Lahore <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">In traditional finance, investors are assumed to behave rationally while making financial decisions. In contrast, proponents of behaviour finance argue that investors are not always rational. In fact, the financial decisions they make and their investment performance are influenced by various behavioural factors. So, the literature is filled with a plethora of studies on finding the impact of behavioural factors on decision-making and investment performance. However, studies on emerging economies like Pakistan are scarce. Further, most studies focus on finding only behavioral factors' impact. However, the current study takes into account behavioural factors, psychological factors, market factors, social factors, and financial literacy together in one model. This study aims to determine whether psychological factors, market factors, social factors, and financial literacy impact investment performance while testing the mediating role of decision-making. The study uses SEM for the analysis. Nine hypotheses are being investigated. The outcomes of the PLS-SEM mediation analysis suggest a mediation effect in all of the parameters investigated in this research study. Interestingly, the results of this study are persistent with the prospect theory and assert that investors do not always make rational judgments when making financial investments. Thus, study results are helpful for retail investors to understand the mistakes they make while making investment decisions.</span></p> Uzma Bokhari Fiaz Ahmad Sulehri Naveed ul Hassan Bilal Aziz Copyright (c) 2023 Uzma Bokhari, Fiaz Ahmad Sulehri, Naveed ul Hassan, Bilal Aziz 2023-03-21 2023-03-21 4 1 27 46 10.52223/jess.20234103 Practices and Issues in Distributed Leadership at University Level: Evidence from the Perspectives of Faculty <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">The idea of distributed leadership is relatively evolving but revealed the lacked understanding of the definition or concept made it more disputed. There is extensive work done on this concept, but not in the context of higher education, especially in Pakistan. This research intended to explore the extent of practices with existing complications in implementing distributive leadership in universities. It also aimed to explore the practices and issues in Distributed leadership at the higher education institutions in Lahore, Pakistan. The study used a quantitative descriptive survey design, with a questionnaire on the dimensions linked to leaders’ distributed leadership practices. A sample of 125 participants was selected using a simple random technique from the four selected public and private universities in Lahore, Pakistan. The results proposed that the practicing distributive leadership in the university faced multifaceted hindrances, proceeding in the directions towards organizational structure; vision; values and beliefs; collaboration and cooperation; roles and responsibility; making decisions and initiatives.</span></p> Iram Muzammil Zahida Habib Copyright (c) 2023 Iram Muzammil, Zahida Habib 2023-03-21 2023-03-21 4 1 47 58 10.52223/jess.20234104