Journal of Education and Social Studies <p>Journal of Education and Social Studies (JESS) is an open access double blind peer reviewed online journal published by Science Impact Publishers. This journal aims to provide an opportunity and a forum to communicate relevant and current issues in the area of education and social sciences. The vast scope of the journal includes all subjects of education, sociology, psychology, journalism, law, human resource management, anthropology, economics, political science, population studies, international relations, religious studies, linguistics and history.</p> Science Impact Publishers en-US Journal of Education and Social Studies 2789-8067 A Study of Performance of Leadership Styles of Selected Heads and Promoted Heads in Secondary Schools of District Sargodha- Pakistan <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">The study's main purpose was to analyse the impact of leadership styles of selected heads and promoted heads in the secondary schools of District Sargodha. This study also explored the relationship between leadership styles and student performance and the problems faced by secondary school heads while using these leadership styles. An independent sample T-Test was conducted to compare scores of annual matric results of selected heads and promoted heads. The research design was quantitative in nature and the researcher conducted a survey to collect data. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to collect data. The targeted population was the 302 secondary schools of District Sargodha. The researcher used random sampling techniques for data collection. The total number of selected schools was 96 schools. The results were examined by frequency distribution, percentage of scores, correlation, mean and independent sample T-Test. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis. Based on the results, the study described that most of the selected heads used using autocratic style and promoted heads used the democratic style. Less than half of the selected heads used democratic, and less than half of the promoted heads were using a Laissez-Faire style. There was a positive correlation between autocratic style, democratic style and student performance as well as found a negative correlation between Laissez-Faire style and student performance. Based on the results drawn from the independent sample T-Test found that there was a significant difference between annual matric results of selected heads and promoted heads. It was concluded that selected heads were using autocratic leadership style and got better student results than promoted heads. Hence, it is recommended that the heads be more flexible in adopting appropriate leadership styles to create collaborative working environments with higher levels of commitment, motivation, facilitating higher productivity and increased student achievements. This study suggested training must be given to heads about modern technology utilization.</span></p> Saima Yasmeen Copyright (c) 2022 Saima Yasmeen 2022-04-03 2022-04-03 3 1 01 11 10.52223/jess.20223101 Impact of Psychological and Communication Barriers towards English Speaking at Secondary School Level in District Toba Tek Singh <p>The students make mistakes and face difficulties during the process of language learning and managing it accurately. The emotional and communication factors may impact upon learning and usage of the English language. The objective of this research study was to inquire about the impact of psychological and communication barriers toward English speaking at the secondary school level in the district Toba Tek Singh. The population for the research study was comprised of secondary schools students and teachers of 10<sup>th</sup> grades in the district of Toba Tek Singh. The Tehsil area of Toba Tek Singh was chosen for research work. Twenty secondary schools of tehsil Toba Tek Singh were chosen for a sample and the sample size comprised of 200 personnel, including 160 students and 40 teachers. The research was descriptive in nature, and the researcher developed a questionnaire that was used as a research tool for the collection of data from the sampled teachers and students. Statistical Testing was conducted from the experimentally collected data, and it was analyzed through different statistical approaches by using SPSS to find out and analyze the results for their reliability. It is concluded that English language learning plays significant role to change environment of society. The secondary school students and teachers lack in speaking English language in schools and classrooms. Their learning and speaking ability is hindered by some psychological and communication hurdles. It is also concluded from research study that these psychological and communication hurdles can be removed or minimized by imparting various communication skills and motivational training programs. </p> Mubshar Gul Noor Muhammad Copyright (c) 2022 Mubshar Gul, Noor Muhammad 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 3 1 12 17 10.52223/jess.20223102 Impact of Human Capital and Social Capabilities on Economic Growth of Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis <p>Theoretically, human capital has a significant relationship with economic growth. In this regard, the present study was conducted to determine the conditions that have a significant and positive relationship with economic growth. The main objective of the study was to explore the impact of human capital and social capabilities or skills on the economic growth of Pakistan. The study estimates the impact of human capital and social capabilities on economic growth of Pakistan by using time series data from the period of 1980-2018 taken from World Bank. Autoregressive distributed lag framework is used for the valuation of variables relationship and direction of connection of variables. Human capital influenced by education expenditure, social capabilities, gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) and children mortality. This study indicates the role of human capital in growth and development of Pakistan. Results showed that health and education are the two main sectors which need significant attention of government. In addition, more investment on human capital can increase the social capabilities. Final consumption expenditure depends on current economic conditions of a nation. Results showed progressive human capital influence economic growth due to social capabilities. These objectives can be attained through sharing the suitable amount of GDP to these sectors.</p> Zarish Riaz Uzma Nisar Humaira Yasmeen Copyright (c) 2022 Zarish Riaz, Uzma Nisar, Humaira Yasmeen 2022-04-04 2022-04-04 3 1 18 30 10.52223/jess.20223103 Understanding the Pattern and Structure of Pakistani Trade <p class="006-JESS-Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">The main objective of this research is to understand the pattern and structure of Pakistani trade from 2012 to 2016. Twenty countries have been selected, accounting for 80 percent of the country's trade. The data from 2012 to 2016 has been taken from the website of UN Comtrade. Averages and percentages are calculated for a better exposition of the data. The figures in the research are in US dollars. Twenty countries that traded with Pakistan were selected. The countries that trade more often with Pakistan are selected. The selected countries are classified on the basis of their per capita income. These countries have been categorized into low, middle, and high-income countries. Exports are categorized into textile and textile products, agricultural products, minerals, and chemicals, including pharmaceuticals and others, and imports are categorized into food, agricultural products, heavy machinery, and chemical products. The results show that total exports of the selected commodities to middle-income countries have decreased by 34 percent, although these economies are growing faster than others. Similarly, imports from middle-income countries decreased. Pakistan imports increased because of the demand for heavy machinery for CPEC. Pakistan imports machinery for about $5 billion from low and middle-income countries. Pakistan shares a common border with two Afghanistan, Iran, India, and China but has minimal trade with them. China and India are the two large emerging economies and part of BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), and countries worldwide are taking advantage of their growth except for Pakistan. The punch line is that Pakistan has to take advantage of its borders and export products with a competitive advantage to its neighboring countries. It will create and promote livelihood and development opportunities in the country.</span></p> Zakir Ullah Niazi Aliya Saeed Copyright (c) 2022 Zakir Ullah Niazi, Aliya Saeed 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 3 1 31 40 10.52223/jess.20223104 A Study of Students Perception about Virtual Learning: An Evidence from Punjab, Pakistan <p>This research sheds light on the importance of virtual learning in today's technological era. Virtual learning is a flexible learning environment in which students can learn according to their eases. The purpose of this research is to review the student's perception of virtual learning. For this purpose, primary data has been collected from the five districts of Punjab (Hafizabad, Faisalabad, Lahore, Jhang, and Sargodha) through a pretested questionnaire. A convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis by using SPSS. Results of the descriptive study shows that the positive perception about virtual learning is 89.0 percent. The students who have access to a computer are 74.7 percent. The number of students who can easily afford the internet are 67.3 percent. The students who positively perceive that the extra cost of getting education traditionally can be saved via virtual learning are 82.9 percent. The positive perception of students about time-saving via virtual learning is 61.7 percent. The students' positive perception that job opportunities are equal for both degree holders is 55.4 percent cumulatively, which is higher than the negative perception. The positive perception for virtual learning is due to the offensive environment of institutions or family restrictions, as students' positive percentage is 59.2 cumulatively. Students' perception about the homogeneous outcomes and achievements via both learning is positive is about 51 percent. Results also suggest that virtual learning enhances the IT skills in students, and it is considered more cost-effective by students as compared to traditional learning. The policy recommendation is that government should concentrate on the importance of virtual learning and take necessary measures for this implementation.</p> Ayesha Siddiqa Copyright (c) 2022 Ayesha Siddiqa 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 3 1 41 51 10.52223/jess.20223105