Journal of Education and Social Studies 2024-04-02T11:12:37+00:00 Managing Editor: Dr. Allah Bakhsh Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of Education and Social Studies (JESS) is an open access double blind peer reviewed online journal published by Science Impact Publishers. This journal aims to provide an opportunity and a forum to communicate relevant and current issues in the area of education and social sciences. The vast scope of the journal includes all subjects of education, sociology, psychology, journalism, law, human resource management, anthropology, economics, political science, population studies, international relations, religious studies, linguistics and history.</p> Effectiveness of Using the Web-Quest Technique to Improve Students’ Reading Comprehension Skills in An ESL Classroom 2024-01-25T18:40:20+00:00 Maria Mukhtar Farhana Khurshid <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">The place of technological resources in the classroom can never be denied in the present globalized era. Integrating technology in ESL classes affects the creativity, curricular attitude, appropriateness, and interest of the learners in the learning environment. In this regard, action research was carried out in order to solve the problem of weak comprehension skills of the EFL learners of Grade 10. The problem was identified through pre-observations of the indicators. In order to overcome the identified problem, a tool was designed in the form of a pre-posttest. After the completion of the data collection, the researcher analyzed the quantitative and qualitative data that were recorded through pre-posttest and focused group discussion respectively. For the quantitative data, the researcher used SPSS to find out the statistical differences between the reading scores of the participants in the pre-posttest. The mean scores of the pre-posttest were compared which exhibited that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of the participants in their reading comprehension before and after the implementation of the Web-Quest technique. Moreover, a thematic analysis of the Qualitative data was made. The results of the study proved that there was a significant effect of using the Web-Quest technique to improve the reading comprehension skills of the participants.</span></p> 2024-02-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Maria Mukhtar, Farhana Khurshid Enhancement of Undergraduate Students' Consciousness about Multicultural Identity 2024-02-04T16:54:47+00:00 Hina Rashid <p>The perspective of multicultural identity enables an individual to acknowledge and respect the prevailing diverse identities individually and socially. This particular approach provides liberty and acceptance towards unique individuals around us. As a practicing community, respect for one's originality and openness towards diverse practices need to be promoted for peace and harmony in any society. This research study aims to enhance the consciousness about multicultural identity through mixed method research, qualitative followed by quantitative research with an experimental intervention. Semantic content analysis of the curriculum of Pakistan Studies designed by HEC enlightened the researcher about existing gaps between the outline and recommended topics and sub-topics in the outline. Triangulation has been performed through focused group discussion to ensure the results and actual influence of the introduced phenomena on the Undergraduate students of B.Ed. (Hons) II (N=46). The findings clearly illustrate the significance of the pretest and posttest results of gender identity and psycho-social identity with effect sizes of r= 0.59 and 0.44, respectively. The research study suggested inculcating the phenomena of multicultural identity at the national level through policymakers and curriculum developers and practiced at the institutional level in educational settings to promote healthy and well-rounded individuals and progressive society.</p> 2024-02-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Hina Rashid Student Achievement Spectrum: Investigating Pedagogical Diversity and Teacher Methodology Perceptions 2024-02-05T05:11:35+00:00 Mukaram Azhar Ms Sumeera Ghulam Mustafa Shaikh Muhammad Ilyas Muhsin Khan Rabil Hadi <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">The study examined the relationship between teachers' teaching methods and the academic performance of 150 undergraduate and Master's students from various fields of study. It contains a structural sample strategy to ensure the inclusion of individuals from various fields. A quantitative research methodology was used to administer a structured survey questionnaire, which was designed through a systematic literature review, in order to analyze students' diverse perspectives on teaching methods, academic performance, and demographic information. The independent variables consisted of perceptions of Teaching Methodologies and different pedagogical approaches, whereas the academic performance of students was the dependent variable. The statistical studies performed using SPSS software encompassed descriptive, regression, and factor analyses, revealing the connections between teaching approaches and academic success. The results emphasized the crucial significance of interactive, learner-focused instructional approaches in promoting enhanced academic performance. The active participation of students and the use of diverse teaching methods had a substantial impact on student achievement, emphasizing the importance of flexible instructional strategies. Nevertheless, traditional teacher-centered approaches demonstrated restricted influence. Although this study has limitations in terms of sample size and reliance on self-reported data, it highlights the need for an adaptable educational approach that incorporates evolving teaching methods to improve student outcomes. The research provides useful insights into effective pedagogical methods, advocating for a versatile and learner-centered educational environment. The study highlights the need for a better understanding of teaching methods' impact on academic performance to improve educational outcomes, resource allocation, curriculum development, and policy formulation.</span></p> 2024-02-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Mukaram Azhar, Ms Sumeera, Ghulam Mustafa Shaikh, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhsin Khan, Rabil Hadi The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Shaping the Future of Education at Higher Secondary Level 2024-02-04T17:19:54+00:00 Muhammad Azeem Sarwar Ms Saima Afshan Gul <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">This study examines the implications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in enhancing educational methodologies at the higher secondary level, focusing on its impact on student engagement and learning outcomes, the experiences and challenges faced by educators in integrating AI tools, and the broader ethical and privacy considerations. Utilizing a qualitative methodology based on interviews with educators and students, the research aims to explore the nuanced perspectives on the role of AI in education, identifying both the potential benefits and drawbacks. Initial findings highlight the positive effects of AI on personalized learning experiences alongside significant challenges related to resource limitations and the need for comprehensive support for educators. Moreover, concerns about ethical implications and data privacy emerge as critical issues requiring careful management. The study concludes that while AI offers transformative potential for educational practices, ensuring effective integration, addressing ethical concerns, and preparing students for future technological challenges is essential for leveraging AI's full benefits in the educational sector.</span></p> 2024-02-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Azeem Sarwar, Ms Saima, Afshan Gul Jinnah's Vision for Minorities in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis 2024-02-19T17:30:48+00:00 Ishfaq Naveed Tasleem Raza <p>This research article explores the role and vision of Mr. Jinnah, the founding father of Pakistan, in shaping the relationship between the nation and its diverse minority communities. This study is to examine the impact of Mr. Jinnah's leadership on minority communities during the partition and in the early years of Pakistan. It also explores his efforts to promote religious harmony and minority rights. Mr. Jinnah's leadership and his commitment to creating a democratic and inclusive Pakistan provide valuable insights into the challenges and opportunities associated with nation-building, religious and cultural pluralism, and the protection of minority rights. This study examines the historical context, Jinnah's political philosophy, and the measures he took to safeguard the rights and well-being of religious minorities in Pakistan.</p> 2024-02-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ishfaq Naveed, Tasleem Raza The Impact of ChatGPT on Language Evolution: A Linguistic Analysis 2024-02-17T18:37:32+00:00 Hina Rafique Imran Nazeer Jawaria Rehman <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">This research sought to identify changes in terms of word choice, sentence structure, and semantics introduced by ChatGPT and how the functionality of ChatGPT impacts the pragmatics of the English language: politeness, deixis, and discourse markers. This study used corpus analysis as part of the methodology involving Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools for part-of-speech tagging and sentiments, analyzing changes in wordings, syntaxes, and semantic elements generated by ChatGPT as an advanced language modal. A qualitative approach, including user surveys and comparative analysis, proved useful in clarifying the changing patterns of politeness, deixis, and discourse markers in AI-supported communication. Henceforth, ChatGPT generates neologism, unique cultural references, verbal contextual adaptations, and a wide range of technical terms. Moreover, the researchers found that user preferences for communication mediums vary, which showed a complex field of users and their expectations in the context of language generated by ChatGPT. Thus, it was observed that ChatGPT contributes significantly to developing the pragmatic aspects of language use in the modern era. Hence, the study proposes that the ChatGPT polishes the usage of politeness terms and improves its deixis along with formal discourse markers. This highlights the need for continuous improvement, especially in areas such as politeness, deixis management, and integration of discourse markers for the developers.</span></p> 2024-02-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Hina Rafique, Imran Nazeer, Jawaria Rehman Exploring the Levels of Undergraduate University Students' Study Skills 2024-02-20T18:45:00+00:00 Hina Zahra Mushtaq Ahmad Malik Ahamd Bilal Cheema <p>The ability to study well is crucial to students' academic performance. The aims of this research were to investigate the study skills levels of undergraduate students, to determine the correlation between academic performance and the study skills of undergraduate students, and to identify any noteworthy variations in study skills based on gender and location. Multi-stage stratified random sampling technique was used to select representative sample of 2207 undergraduate students from Punjab, Pakistan's general public universities. With the author's consent, a modified version of the study skills evaluation questionnaire was adapted, and the academic performance scale was created, verified, and subjected to a reliability coefficient of .094 and 0.85. Four research hypotheses were developed and put to the test using the t-test, Pearson r, mean, and standard deviation. The results indicated a substantial difference in terms of gender and location, as well as a favorable link between study skills and academic performance. Moreover, the majority of undergraduate students employed study skills at a moderate level; therefore, it is recommended to design and incorporate study skills in educational courses for students in academic curricula.</p> 2024-02-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Hina Zahra, Mushtaq Ahmad Malik, Ahamd Bilal Cheema Attitude of Government School Teachers Towards Including Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Education: A Case Study of Larkana 2024-02-19T08:42:32+00:00 Muhammad Ilyas Ms Sumeera Muhsin Khan Muhammad Junaid Maria Sarwar Soomro <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">This study aims to examine attitude of government school teachers towards integration of Children with Disabilities (CWD) in mainstream education. Their perception of the phenomenon, challenges and possible solutions in their views were covered. Qualitative method, particularly case study design, was used for data collection, and its interpretive approach was utilized in order to gain detailed data from the participants. In the case study, a school in Larkana was selected. Utilizing purposive sampling and criterion-based selection, ten teachers from the school were chosen as respondents to obtain data. Out of ten respondents, eight teachers eventually became part of the study, and the data was collected from them. The data collection tools were semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. The obtained data was subjected to content analysis during which different themes emerged: the establishment of an inclusive school, the role of teachers in mainstream schools to implement inclusive education in schools, and the role of the Education and Literacy Department in establishing inclusive schools. In case the mainstream school is converted into an inclusive school, the respondents were aware of the challenges that they might face and the role that they will have to play concerning differentiation, individualized type of support, and collaboration. Findings revealed that the respondents considered the school unfit for turning into an inclusive school due to missing men and material resources, overcrowded classrooms that will make it difficult to teach children with disabilities, and lack of support from local educational authorities. They recommended contextually responsive support for teachers along with their specialized training, keeping into account the real classroom environment, to successfully convert a mainstream school into an inclusive school. Reducing teacher student ratio and recruitment of teaching assistants were also recommended. </span></p> 2024-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Ilyas, Sumeera, Muhsin Khan, Muhammad Junaid, Maria Sarwar Soomro A Phenomenological Analysis of Social Studies Students' Lived Experiences Teachers: Building Concepts of Democratic Citizenship and Education 2024-02-27T16:04:20+00:00 Nayyar Sultana Aleena Chaudhry Amna Afzal <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">The purpose of the study was to explore how social studies teachers <a name="_Hlk151543205"></a>conceptualised democracy, developed ideas about democratic citizenship and implemented their perspectives and experiences into teaching. The study used a phenomenological approach to qualitative research design. Total 528 students and 50 teachers were selected using a purposive sampling method with data analysed by Moustakas’s transcendental approach. The participants conceptualised democracy as a political system, civic participation and influence of government decision-making. They developed ideas about democratic citizenship from multiple sources, such as family members, networking, citizenship projects, professional development training, political engagement, travel, and involvement in community services. Teachers implemented their perspectives by utilising experiential learning, incorporating student’s ideas into teaching methods and employing technology. Other findings that emerged included the educator’s inadequate preparation of instructional strategies and student’s apathetic responses to learning about the democratic process. This study reveals the need for educators, teachers, and policymakers to collaborate to develop instructional practices, incorporate experiential learning experiences and improve social studies curricula to promote student engagement.</span></p> 2024-03-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Nayyar Sultana, Aleena Chaudhry, Amna Afzal Self-Harming Behaviors and Psychopathy Traits in Abused Children 2024-03-04T06:27:56+00:00 Iqra Batool Tazvin Ijaz Muhammad Bilal Arif <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">This study aimed to explore child abuse and neglect in relation to psychopathy and self-harming behaviors. A cross-sectional correlational research design was used to carry out the research. A sample of 100 children (50 boys &amp; 50 girls) was selected at age ranging from 12-18 years through purposive sampling. The data was collected from two NGOs in Lahore through purposive sampling. An adapted and translated Child Abuse Screening Tool was used to identify children with different levels and types of abuse and neglect. Urdu version of the Youth Psychopathy Inventory was used to find out psychopathy traits. The deliberate Self-Harm Inventory was translated into Urdu for the purpose of assessing self-harm behavior in participants along with a demographic questionnaire. Pearson product-moment correlation showed there was no significant relationship between psychopathy and child abuse. It was identified that there were no significant gender differences between psychopathy traits and self-harming behaviors in abused children. The current study is significant because it addresses the pressing public issue prevailing in the country day by day, and it has a negative impact on the victim’s survival. The findings revealed that child abuse leads victims towards self-harm and can develop psychopathic traits. On the basis of results, further study is needed to be conducted on these variables, as self-harm was more reported in abused children as compared to psychopathic traits. The variables used in this study needed to be addressed broadly to evaluate the clear impact of abuse in this study, the limitation was the availability of limited data due to the sensitivity of the topic or legal issues that could be addressed in future studies. </span></p> 2024-03-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Iqra Batool, Tazvin Ijaz, Muhammad Bilal Arif Empowerment at the Crossroads: Opportunity as a Mediator in the Nexus Between Micro Financial Services and Women's Economic Wellbeing, Moderated by Vulnerability 2024-03-04T09:40:48+00:00 Raqia Yasmeen Ali Sajjad Hafiza Sana Kiran Muhammad Haseeb Shakil Qurat-ul-ain Rasheed <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">Women’s empowerment is globally recognized, with economic empowerment being a key aspect—enabling decision-making, income growth, and asset ownership. This study investigates the mediating role of opportunity and microfinance elements, along with social capital, in enhancing women’s economic empowerment. Data was collected from 205 female clients across three microfinance banks in Pakistan using closed-ended questionnaires. Employing Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), the study reveals strong positive correlations between women entrepreneurs’ sales performance and their ability to secure loans, acquire new skills, and establish networks. Social capital plays a pivotal role in boosting business outcomes. The relationship between loan availability, savings, skill development, social capital, and bonding is mediated by opportunities for business improvement. Vulnerability moderates the relationship between opportunity and women entrepreneurs’ sales success, allowing for business expansion. Microfinance components positively impact women’s economic empowerment.</span></p> 2024-03-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Raqia Yasmeen, Ali Sajjad, Hafiza Sana Kiran, Muhammad Haseeb Shakil, Qurat-ul-ain Rasheed Exploring Head Teacher’s Perspectives Regarding the Execution of the Single National Curriculum (SNC) in Public Primary Schools 2024-03-05T05:33:38+00:00 Kiran Iqbal Sajid Hasan Saima Nasreen Muhammad Imran <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">The Single National Curriculum (SNC) is envisioned to provide a balanced platform for all learners belonging to all sections of society to burgeon fair and equal opportunities for all children. This research was supposed to explore the views of the school head teachers. A purposive sampling technique was used in the research. A sample of 12 primary head teachers of government schools were selected. It was a qualitative study and Interview protocols were used to assemble data from primary school head teachers. Qualitative data were analyzed and themes were generated manually. Results showed that the majority of the head teachers believed that SNC would help remove social disparities and promote equity in education, improve language and literacy skills, increase critical and creative thinking, and contribute to personal, social, and emotional development. Primary teachers' demographics, perceptions, and inferential analysis revealed that SNC would help remove social disparities, improve language and literacy skills, increase critical and creative thinking, and contribute to personal, social, and emotional development. Head teachers in Pakistan view the implementation of the SNC positively, believing it has the potential to create a more equitable and accessible education system. However, they emphasize the need for proper training, guidance, and monitoring to ensure the success of SNC. Overall, the findings suggest a collective understanding of the benefits of SNC and a commitment to realizing them through cooperation, and collaboration and further to widen fair and equal educational opportunities for all learners.</span></p> 2024-03-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Kiran Iqbal, Sajid Hasan, Saima Nasreen, Muhammad Imran Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and the Environmental Degradation in Asian Countries 2024-03-24T04:26:25+00:00 Ms Fouzia Mehwish Siddique Tehreem Waheed <p>Environmental pollution is an emerging issue in Asian countries. It affects quality of life and is dangerous for human life. It has been observed that carbon emissions from Asian countries are speedily increasing. The major factors causing environmental degradation are GDP per capita, industrialization, urbanization, and energy use. This study is an effort to highlight the causes of environmental degradation in eight Asian countries by using 10 years of data. Moreover, the study has used the fixed effect method to highlight the significance of major causes of environmental degradation in the concerned economies. Results show that urban population, energy consumption, economic growth, and financial development increase carbon emission CO2 (i.e., environmental degradation) in Asian countries. The result suggested that the Government must reduce the carbon emission level in these countries and must provide a better environment to the population.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ms Fouzia, Mehwish Siddique, Tehreem Waheed Proliferations of Gated Communities and the Fear of Crimes: An Empirical Study of Some Select Gated Communities in Zaria and Sabon Gari Local Government Areas, Kaduna State, Nigeria 2024-04-01T04:15:46+00:00 Mohammed Bashir Abubakar Luka Gwarmari Dennis Muhammad Hatim <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">Gated communities are becoming increasingly popular in Zaria and Sabon Gari Local Government Areas of Kaduna State. The objectives of the study were to investigate the reasons for the proliferation of gated communities, and their safety and security. The study adopted the Defensible Space Theory. This article which is an empirical endeavour used the qualitative method in collecting and analysing data. In-depth interviews were conducted to elicit primary data. Key findings of the study revealed that the proliferation of gated communities was a result of the high level of insecurity and the quest for a secure community. The study further discovered that informants interviewed in the gated communities feel safe and secure against all forms of criminal activities. The study recommends that the Kaduna State government should design a policy that will make gated communities a residential development pattern in urban areas like Zaria and Sabon Gari.</span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Mohammed Bashir Abubakar, Luka Gwarmari Dennis, Muhammad Hatim Impact of 7E Model on Students' Academic Achievement: A Comprehensive Analysis in Educational Settings 2024-04-01T04:02:08+00:00 Mateen Iqbal Zahida Noreen Khizar Hayat <p>The 7E model of instruction, encompassing “Elicit, Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate, and Extend”, has emerged as a prominent framework for promoting active learning and student-centered instruction in educational settings. This study aimed at comprehensively analyzing the impact of the 7E model on students' academic achievement across diverse educational contexts. In order to evaluate how well the 7E model improves students' academic performance, cognitive abilities, and affective outcomes, quantitative data will be analyzed. The research was conducted using a quasi-experimental design as the methodology. The study involved 10th grade students learning “physics” at public high and higher secondary schools in the Sargodha district. A strategy that involved many stages of sampling was used to choose a representative sample. Two secondary schools were selected with ease in the first round in Sargodha City, out of 11 girls’ schools and 15 boys’ schools. For the second phase, two classrooms of the 10th grade from each school were chosen at random. Two control groups and two experimental groups were created at random. The instrument was utilized as a pre-test and post-test i.e., Achievement Test in Physics (ATP). The reliability of the research instrument was evaluated using Cronbach's Alpha, and it was found to be reliable. For the analyzing data, independent samples t-test, and ANOVA were used. Additionally, the study will explore the applicability of the 7E instructional model across various subject areas and investigate factors influencing successful implementation, such as teacher training, classroom environment, and institutional support structures. By offering comprehensive insights into the impact of the 7E instructional model on students' academic performance, this research aims to inform educators, policymakers, and educational stakeholders in their efforts to promote effective teaching and learning practices that foster student success and engagement in educational settings.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Mateen Iqbal, Zahida Noreen, Khizar Hayat Breaking the Silence: A Quantitative Analysis of Challenges among Orphaned Children in Sargodha District Orphanages 2024-04-02T11:09:03+00:00 Rashna Asif Tahira Gilani Mateen Iqbal Muhammad Imran <p>Orphans represent a significant population worldwide, and orphan homes are responsible for providing support for holistic development in the lives of children. The purpose of the study was to investigate the psychological, social, and educational challenges faced by orphan children in orphan homes. The theoretical framework of the current study was based on the Attachment Theory by Bowlby, which states how early caregiver relationships influence the psychological, social, and educational development of orphan children in orphan homes. All of the orphan children in SOS Children Village district Sargodha made up the population of the current study. A sample of 206 orphan children was selected randomly from SOS Children Village district Sargodha. Reliable data were gathered using a quantitative survey study design, and the instrument's reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's Alpha, which was found to be 0.89. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviations, frequency percentages, and inferential statistics, for instance, the t-test. The results showed that gender was found to be significant regarding psychological, social, and educational challenges. In addition, female orphan children have a greater mean score as compared to males concerning psychological and social challenges. While, concerning educational challenges male orphans have a greater mean score as compared to female orphan children. However, to overcome these challenges it is suggested that it is essential to create efficient programs that can recognize and tackle the emotional, social, and academic difficulties orphaned children confront.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Rashna Asif, Tahira Gilani, Mateen Iqbal, Muhammad Imran Gender Differences in Teacher’s Pedagogical Practices and Attitudes towards Students’ Learning 2024-04-02T11:12:37+00:00 Muhammad Imran Asif Sultan Faizan Ali <p>Education is crucial for building a strong and developed nation. Formal education begins with primary education which includes a variety of subjects such as Mathematics, languages, Science, Social studies, etc. Teachers’ Pedagogical Practices and Attitudes are vital for the teaching of a variety of subjects at the primary level. The study was opted to explore the Gender Differences in Teacher’s Pedagogical Practices and Attitudes towards Students' Learning. It is a case study of primary schools of district Sargodha having only one teacher. The research utilized a survey methodology in conjunction with a descriptive strategy to collect data. The 74 single elementary teachers in District Sargodha, both male and female, made up the population and sample. Data collection was conducted through personal visits using two questionnaires (1<sup>st </sup>for Pedagogical Practices and 2<sup>nd</sup> for Attitude towards student learning) that included a demographic variable (Gender) too. These questions were verified by specialists and pilot-tested, resulting in a Cronbach Alpha score of 0.92. The data analysis was conducted utilizing statistical measures such as frequencies, percentages, mean scores, and independent sample t-tests. There was no significant difference between the views of single primary school male and female teachers about pedagogical practices and their factors (lesson plan, teaching methods, teacher behavior, instructional materials/technology assessment, community involvement) but a significant difference existed in classroom management (p-value=0.03&lt;0.05) between male and female where male teacher better regarding classroom management. There was also no significant difference between male and female single primary school teachers’ attitude towards students learning. It is recommended that single primary school teachers (Male/Female) be facilitated through training in classroom management.</p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Imran, Asif Sultan, Faizan Ali Assessing the Drivers of Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Time-Series Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment and Oil Price Effects 2024-03-20T08:39:52+00:00 Muhammad Ali Gardezi Ayesha Rasheed Aurang Zaib Bakhtawar Zafar <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">This research looks at the factors that drive Pakistan's economic growth, with a particular emphasis on the influence of foreign direct investment (FDI) and oil prices. Using data from 1998 to 2022, the study applies the Auto Regression Distributed Lag (ARDL) model to examine the link between FDI, oil prices, and economic growth. The empirical findings show that FDI has a beneficial impact on economic growth, highlighting its importance as a driver for economic development in Pakistan. In contrast, the study finds that rising oil prices harm economic growth, emphasizing the negative effects of oil price volatility. Considering these findings, the study underlines the need for policies that encourage FDI inflows and industrialization to drive economic growth. Furthermore, the study emphasizes the importance of government involvement to mitigate the negative effects of rising oil costs, since unchecked rises might stymie economic progress. Understanding the determinants of economic growth in Pakistan is critical for both policymakers and investors. FDI is critical for increasing productivity and creating jobs, yet oil price volatility can have a substantial influence on the country's macroeconomic stability and growth trajectory. Analyzing their effects gives useful insights for long-term economic growth initiatives. Overall, the study suggests a dual strategy for Pakistani policymakers: create a climate conducive to attracting FDI while taking steps to reduce the negative consequences of unpredictable oil prices. By prioritizing these policies, Pakistan may accelerate its economic growth and protect itself from foreign economic shocks.</span></p> 2024-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Ali Gardezi, Ayesha Rasheed, Aurang Zaib, Bakhtawar Zafar