Journal of Education and Social Studies <p>Journal of Education and Social Studies (JESS) is an open access double blind peer reviewed online journal published by Science Impact Publishers. This journal aims to provide an opportunity and a forum to communicate relevant and current issues in the area of education and social sciences. The vast scope of the journal includes all subjects of education, sociology, psychology, journalism, law, human resource management, anthropology, economics, political science, population studies, international relations, religious studies, linguistics and history.</p> en-US (Managing Editor: Dr. Allah Bakhsh) (Iqbal Javed) Mon, 06 May 2024 03:49:39 +0000 OJS 60 The Power of ZPD: Enhancing Teaching and Learning <p>The purpose of this research is to examine the educational implications of Vygotsky's (1978) notion of the Zone of Proximal Development, originally developed to account for the learning potential of children, and investigate ZPD applications in teaching and learning. Literature-based approach is used to gather the data. This research review represents the meaning of ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development), discusses the implications of ZPD for teaching and learning, and then classroom strategies. This paper presented the diverse applications of the ZPD in academic settings, highlighting its capacity to enhance instructional strategies and promote the development of learners. To create inclusive learning environments where every student can reach their full potential, educators are advised to use formative assessment practices, scaffolding techniques, peer collaboration promotion, differentiation of instruction, and technology tool integration.</p> Muhammad Nadeem Anwar, Naila Mushtaq, Abdul Mubeen, Mazhar Iqbal Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Nadeem Anwar, Naila Mushtaq, Abdul Mubeen, Mazhar Iqbal Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Recruitment Policies for Primary School Educators and National Professional Standards: A Qualitative Analysis <p>A successful recruitment policy ensures the selection of competent and qualified teachers for the education as well as the overall development of students. Primary education is the foundation of the entire education system. but unfortunately, Pakistan stands at a very low position among other countries of the world in Primary Education. The lack of competent teachers is a major issue in Pakistan. This study was designed to analyze the alignment of recruitment policies for primary school educators in Punjab according to eight indicators that were derived from the National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan. This study was qualitative, so, firstly, the alignment of recruitment policies of 2018 and 2022 with National Professional Standards was analyzed through document analysis. Secondly, members of the district recruitment committee were interviewed to explore the assessment criteria of selection for primary school educators. Trustworthiness was ensured with data source triangulation. The findings revealed that recruitment policy is not aligned with National professional standards for teachers. The interview process for the selection of primary educators needs to be strengthened for the evaluation of future educators.</p> Javeria Azam, Rukhsana Durrani Copyright (c) 2024 Javeria Azam, Rukhsana Durrani Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Turning Point for Novice Educators of BS Education During Teaching Practice Activity by University of Narowal <p>Teaching practice is an essential element of teacher training for perspective teacher. It allows future teachers to gain practical learning and instruction training. In this research, the researchers seek to determine how these experiences affect and how student instructors view the teaching profession. Researchers explore the experiences of student teachers in the Bachelor of Science in Education (BS Education) at University of Narowal during their 2 months teaching practice in the district Narowal. All the 43 novice eductors were selected for this research and researcher collected the data by using semi-structured interviews technique with all student instructors, and themes were found and the data was analyzed through content analysis methods. Researcher found that, despite having great teaching practice experiences, novice educators encountered difficulties that affected how they saw the teaching as a profession. According to the results of the research, the participants developed a positive perception about teaching profession and their motivation to choose career as teachers increased after short term teaching practice. The study overall shows that teaching practice enhnace the interest and motivation of novice educators in teaching profession.</p> Navid Tufail, Khizar Hayat, Asad Ali Manzoor, Fakhar Ul Zaman Copyright (c) 2024 Navid Tufail, Khizar Hayat, Asad Ali Manzoor, Fakhar Ul Zaman Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Educational Psychologists for Social and Emotional Learning of Students and Head Teachers: A Systematic Literature Review <p>The purpose of this research is to review evidence about the significance of the role of educational psychologists for the social and emotional learning of students and head teachers in the development of student's learning process in different ways. The purpose of the study is to see the different successful strategies that can transform students’ lives through learning behavioral, emotional, and social interaction with others and the type of environment that is needed in the educational sector through a literature review. The main objective of the study is to analyze the need for social and emotional development of students and head teachers at the secondary level. This systematic literature review explores the pivotal role of educational psychologists in fostering social and emotional learning (SEL) among both students and head teachers within educational settings. A conventional subject-searching method was used for the systematic literature review. The results of the study highlight the multifaceted contributions of educational psychologists in enhancing emotional intelligence, interpersonal skills, and mental well-being among students, while also supporting head teachers in creating emotionally supportive school climates and effective leadership practices.</p> Nayyar Sultana, Liaqat Ali, Sehrish Kashan Copyright (c) 2024 Nayyar Sultana, Liaqat Ali, Sehrish Kashan Wed, 08 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Classroom Management as Perceived by Female Students at the Secondary Level <p>Effective classroom management is directly associated with a positive class environment and positive outcomes. In this study, we examined the different determinants of the classroom management. This study was conducted in four secondary schools (private) in the District of Faisalabad in Punjab province. Students from class 10th were considered as the population, thus from each selected school, the total number of students was 350 which served as the population of this study. All the participants were female students. Of the total population, 25 students were chosen from each selected school, thereby the total sample size of the study was 100 female students. A questionnaire was administered for the data collection and was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results revealed that perceived challenges faced by students in the classroom, with mental illness, lack of self-confidence, personal issues, and poor listening emerging as the most prominent concerns. Whereas, factors perceived to significantly affect classroom management, highlighting disabilities, lack of interest, and self-esteem as primary considerations for educators and administrators. Investing in teacher training programs that focus on aspects of classroom management can enhance their ability to create a positive and conducive learning environment.</p> Sadia Aslam, Aminah Qayuum, Adeela Manzoor, Maria Anwar, Muhammad Salman, Zahid Hassan, Saif Ali, Moula Bux Peerzado, Muhammad Usman Copyright (c) 2024 Sadia Aslam, Aminah Qayuum, Adeela Manzoor, Maria Anwar, Muhammad Salman, Zahid Hassan, Saif Ali, Moula Bux Peerzado, Muhammad Usman Thu, 09 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Loneliness, Need to Belong, and Quality of Life Among Older Adults: A Gender Based Analysis <p>Global health policies have been changed and it has increased the life expectancy of the elderly population raising concerns about the elderly’s well-being. Loneliness and the need to belong emerged as key influences on older adults' mental and physical health. This study aimed to investigate the interrelation of loneliness, belongingness, and life quality among the elderly in Pakistan with gender distinctions. Data from 210 participants 60 years and above were collected using the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Neto, 2014), the Need to Belong scale (Leary, 2013), and the Quality-of-Life Scale (Phillips et al., 2002). Results were analyzed using statistical methods such as correlation analysis, regression analysis, and t-test, which highlighted significant correlations between loneliness, need to belong, and quality of life. Regression analysis revealed the impact of loneliness and belongingness on quality of life. Gender-wise, older males felt more lonely, while females sought more belongingness and reported better quality of life. The findings suggest to address loneliness and increase social connectedness to improve the well-being of older people. Keywords: loneliness, need to belong, quality of life, older population.</p> Sarah Mahmood, Momna Qudoos, Muhammad Ramzan Copyright (c) 2024 Sarah Mahmood, Momna Qudoos, Muhammad Ramzan Tue, 14 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Analyzing effects of managerial skills of government high school heads on school performance: a study of schools of Larkana District <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Present study aimed at investigating the effects of the managerial skills of school heads&nbsp; on academic performance of students in district Larkana, Sindh. The major objectives of the study was to determine specific managerial skills of school heads, effects of those skill of performance of high schools of Larkana and strategies to improve them. Saturated sampling techniques was utilized for selecting respondents of present study. Additionally, twenty five government high heads of Larkana District were considered for collecting data.&nbsp; Close-ended and open-ended questionnaires were utilized for gathering data. Reliability was tested using Cronbach Coefficient Aloha where coefficient 0.757 was considered to be realizable. Analyzed data were showed in APA style tables. The analyzed data showed that most of the government high school heads of Larkana District were able to utilize numerous managerial skills that were effecting school performance. However, for further improving their skills different strategies were needed to be implemented. It was also suggested that high school heads should be dedicated to their built-in managerial skills and use them in their daily duties. While, they also should facilitate numerous opportunities to attend training and workshops for positively effecting the school performance.</p> Muhsin Khan Bhutto, Ms Sumeera, Muhammad Ilyas, Maria Sarwar, Mansoor Hussain Channa, Awais ur Rehman Memon Copyright (c) 2024 Muhsin Khan Bhutto, Ms Sumeera, Muhammad Ilyas, Maria Sarwar, Mansoor Hussain Channa, Awais ur Rehman Memon Tue, 21 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Parents’ Education on Social Adjustment of Girls Students at the Secondary Level <p>The study sought to determine the impact of parental education on the social adjustment of girls at secondary level schooling. The study will be significant for the stakeholders of education e.g. parents. The study will also be useful for secondary school teachers concerning social adjustment. The study's population consisted of all female students in their last year of secondary school certificate "SSC" in 91 girls' Government secondary schools in the district of Sargodha. The study's sample consisted of 400 students chosen at random from nine (10%). A self-created questionnaire was employed, and data was gathered by the researchers themselves. Cronbach Alpha, the dependability coefficient, was 0.72. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean scores, SD, etc.) and inferential statistics (t-test and Pearson r). The major findings were that as the students' mothers' and fathers' education levels increased, so did their social adjustment level also enhance. A positive but weak link was discovered between female students' adjustment and their parents' education. It is recommended that head teachers and teachers raise awareness among parents during parent-teacher meetings to help female students gain confidence and prepare for social adjustment.</p> Abida Parveen, Asiya Anwar, Mushtaq Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Abida Parveen, Asiya Anwar, Mushtaq Ahmad Wed, 29 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Teachers’ Digital Competence and its Relationship with Teacher Effectiveness at Higher Education Level in Punjab <p>Digitalization in higher education involves using digital tools for administration, teaching, evaluation, research, and extension activities. The proficiency of educators in digital skills is imperative for achieving optimal teaching outcomes. This study endeavors to examine the correlation between teachers' digital proficiency and their effectiveness in instructional delivery within public sector universities situated in Punjab. Additionally, it seeks to ascertain whether there exist noteworthy variances in teachers' digital proficiency based on demographic factors. Employing a quantitative survey method, this research adopts a descriptive research approach. The investigation was conducted across public sector universities in the province of Punjab, with three universities selected through convenience sampling. A total of 370 teachers were randomly chosen from these institutions to participate in the study. Standard research instruments were utilized for data collection, while statistical software SPSS facilitated data analysis to derive conclusions. Descriptive statistics were computed, followed by correlation analysis, simple linear regression, and independent sample t-tests to interpret the findings. The results revealed a substantial association between teachers' digital proficiency and their efficacy in higher education. The study also found that teachers' digital competence and effectiveness are moderate in nature. There was no significant difference in digital competence based on gender, experience, age group, academic qualification, and training. The study concluded that educators in higher education have the capacity to acquire the requisite knowledge, skills, and proficiency to augment their digital competence and instructional efficacy in an increasingly technology-driven environment. Nonetheless, the research identified certain constraints and proposed avenues for future investigation.</p> Irum Iqbal, Ijaz Hussain, Muhammad Safdar Tahir Copyright (c) 2024 Irum Iqbal, Ijaz Hussain, Muhammad Safdar Tahir Fri, 31 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Financial Inclusion and Financial Development Determine Human Development in Selected Asian Countries <p>The research highlights the crucial role of accessible financial services and robust financial systems in enhancing human development outcomes, offering valuable insights for policy-makers aiming to foster inclusive economic growth. This research makes an effort to highlight that financial inclusion and financial development with other major factors determine human development in some selected Asian economies. The authors make use of panel data from 8 Asian nations for the year 2005 to 2018. The dependent variable is the human development index. However, financial inclusion, financial development, urban population, and general government final consumption expenditure are taken as explanatory factors in this analysis. Fixed effect results show that financial inclusion with financial development, urban population, and general government final consumption expenditures have enhanced the human development of Asian countries. The study findings recommend for maximum financial approach and financial amenities in improving the human development of nations. There is a dire need for more improved quality of education for high living standards and development.</p> Fareh Salman, Ayesha Sohail, Aimen Ejaz, Maimoona Kazmi Copyright (c) 2024 Fareh Salman, Ayesha Sohail, Aimen Ejaz, Maimoona Kazmi Sun, 02 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Economic Growth and Government Health Expenditures in Determining Life Expectancy in Selected Asian Countries <p>Life expectancy is indispensable to Asian countries that are endeavoring to attain socioeconomic development completely by making many investments in the health and education sectors. Current research focuses on determinants of life expectancy in selected Asian economies by using panel data from 15 nations. Fixed effect results highlight that domestic general government health expenditures, economic growth, and urban population are contributing to improved life expectancy at birth. However, the unemployment rate seems to be deteriorating the life expectancy at birth in these Asian economies. The Governments of these economies must provide more educational and health facilities along with job chances to the general people. Moreover, health and educational expenditures must be the maximum share of GDP in these economies.</p> Ms. Fouzia, Mehwish Siddique, Anam Altaf Copyright (c) 2024 Ms. Fouzia, Mehwish Siddique, Anam Altaf Tue, 04 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the Dynamics of the Fiscal Landscape Through Institutional Lenses: A Case Study of South Asia <p>Tax revenue is crucial for governments to finance essential expenditures, social welfare programs, and infrastructure development, which are vital for economic advancement and social well-being. A high tax-to-GDP ratio indicates a strong fiscal position and substantial revenue, which are fundamental for maintaining financial stability and ensuring long-term sustainability. Every country aims to enhance its revenues through various reforms. This study conducted a comprehensive analysis of tax reforms in selected South Asian economies from 2002 to 2022, focusing on their influence on the tax-to-GDP ratio. The outcomes of the Breusch-Pagan and Hausman tests suggest that the Random Effects Model (REM) is suitable for this estimation. Findings of the REM reveal significant and positive associations between government effectiveness, law and order, political stability, and tax-to-GDP share, as one percent rise in the respective variables leads to 3.3%, 1.5%, and 2.02% per one percent improvement in the tax-to-GDP share. The Dumitrescu-Hurlin Panel Causality Tests find no homogeneous causality among related variables. Recommendations include prioritizing government effectiveness, improving the law-and-order situation, maintaining political stability, and enhancing GDP growth to boost tax revenues. Future research will focus on optimizing fiscal policies and revenue mobilization strategies in the region.</p> Muhammad Ghulam Shabeer, Muhammad Salahuddin Ayyubi, Wajid Usman, Assad Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Ghulam Shabeer, Muhammad Salahuddin Ayyubi, Wajid Usman, Assad Ullah Khan Wed, 05 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 From Empowerment to Suppression: Examining Gender Dynamics through Material Feminist Lens in A Thousand Splendid Suns by Khalid Hosseini <p class="001-JESS-Title" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span style="font-weight: normal;">This study investigates Khaled Hosseini's novel A Thousand Splendid Suns (2007) utilizing materialist feminism theory by Alaimo and Hekman (2008) with Nancy Fraser's Distribution justice theory. It aims to unfold how material developments or changes give rise to new gender roles within the narrative of this novel. Employing materialist feminism, the study sheds light on the oppression and subjugation of women in society, as depicted through the characters Mariam and Laila. According to the researcher’s stance, this novel delves into the experiences of women in a country undergoing socio-political transformations. So, the societal impact of these new gender roles brought about by social change is examined in this article with a proposition that the material development of Afghanistan has revesed the role of women within its community due to the political transformation. For this purpose, the study has used an intricate interplay between gender and power within the novel, employing materialist feminism theory to elucidate the lives of its female characters and protagonists amidst the backdrop of political turmoil in Afghanistan. Its significance lies in understanding how social, political, and economic factors affect gender in underdeveloped countries due to its geopolitical reality. The study elucidates how material conditions shape the experiences of Mariam and Laila and underscores the impact of economic circumstances on gender-based oppression. By scrutinizing women's access to resources and opportunities, the research concludes that social, economic, and political factors contribute to gender-based inequalities. Ultimately, this study advocates for a comprehensive understanding of women's struggles and challenges, emphasizing the need for societal change to address gender-based issues. </span></p> Warsha Arshad, Mohsin Iqbal, Mahnoor Amir Copyright (c) 2024 Warsha Arshad, Mohsin Iqbal, Mahnoor Amir Sun, 09 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Green Belts and Existing Plantations along Roads in Multan, Pakistan: Locals' Perspectives <p>This study assessed people's awareness and perception regarding green belts and existing plantations in Multan. Three different roads were randomly selected to collect data for this study. A validated and well-structured questionnaire was developed and data were collected from 385 respondents. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that dense trees and evergreen shrubs were highly preferred for greenbelts. Preferred facilities included jogging tracks and sitting areas. The responsibility for green belt management and cleanliness was primarily attributed to the government, although private institutions were also recognized for their role in protecting it. Chi-square tests indicated significant associations between demographic factors and awareness of green belts. Age, education, gender, and occupation were significantly related to perceptions of green belts' benefits, such as beautification, pollution reduction, health improvement, infrastructure development, increased land value, and business opportunities. Highly educated and middle-aged respondents showed greater support for green belt awareness. By aligning urban planning and policy decisions with these public preferences and demographic insights, policymakers can enhance the effectiveness and sustainability of green belt projects.</p> Sami Ullah, Tanveer Ahmad, Tahir Saeed, Hafiz Zahid Mehmood, Muhammad Muzamil Ijaz, Umar Farooq, Iftikhar Ahmad, M Usman Khan, Muhammad Khushnood Ashraf, Muhammad Saleem, Ahmed Faiz Akbar Copyright (c) 2024 Sami Ullah, Tanveer Ahmad, Tahir Saeed, Hafiz Zahid Mehmood, Muhammad Muzamil Ijaz, Umar Farooq, Iftikhar Ahmad, M Usman Khan, Muhammad Khushnood Ashraf, Muhammad Saleem, Ahmed Faiz Akbar Wed, 12 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Navigating the Digital Marketplace: Examining the Influence of Social Media Advertising on Purchase Intentions through the Lens of Performance Expectancy Theory <p>This study aims to analyze how social media advertising affects consumer purchase intentions, in Pakistan. Organizations have spent a lot of time, money, and resources on social media ads. However, there is always a challenge in how organizations can design social media advertising to successfully attract customers and motivate them to purchase their brands. This study aims to identify and test the main factors related to social media advertising. It investigates how performance expectancy influences the relationships between informativeness, perceived relevance, social media marketing, interactivity, and purchase intention. The research is grounded in the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2). The data was collected using a questionnaire survey of 350 participants. To gather data a structured questionnaire-based quantitative research approach was used. Data for this study was collected through a questionnaire and a survey was conducted from consumers of Punjab Pakistan. This research aims to give several theoretical and practical advice for marketers on how to effectively design and conduct social media advertising campaigns.</p> Rabia Zubair, Quratulain Zafar, Farhat Rasul, Muhammad Ghulam Shabeer Copyright (c) 2024 Rabia Zubair, Quratulain Zafar, Farhat Rasul, Muhammad Ghulam Shabeer Thu, 13 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Dynamics of Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in South Asian Countries: A Panel Data Analysis <p>Energy is pivotal for economies to function, providing the necessary inputs for manufacturing goods and services. It encompasses hydro, wind, geothermal, solar energy, nuclear power, and other nonrenewable and renewable energy sources. This study's goal is to investigate the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption in Asian nations (Pakistan, India, China, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh) from 1998 to 2022, using secondary sources such as the World Development Indicator (WDI) and the International Energy Agency (IEA). The dependent variable, gross domestic product (GDP), is examined against the four independent variables gross capital formation, nonrenewable resources, renewable resources, and foreign direct investment. Various statistical methods including panel unit root, Granger causality test, panel least squares, and co-integration are employed. The estimated results of the panel least square model indicate that there is a moderate and significant correlation among variables. Non-renewable sources (0.0049) and REN (Renewable Energy sources) (0.0298) demonstrate weaker associations with the dependent variable. The coefficient for FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) is 0.677, which shows a positive relationship with the dependent variable. GFCF (Gross Fixed Capital Formation) variable, which exhibits a positive correlation with a coefficient of 0.0889. The results indicate a moderate and significant correlation among variables, with non-renewable and renewable energy sources demonstrating weaker associations with GDP. Foreign direct investment has a favorable association with GDP, as gross fixed capital formation. These findings of the study highlight a strong positive link between the independent and dependent variables.</p> Anam Ghafoor, Tahira Sadaf, Ayesha Rouf, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal, Komal Azhar Copyright (c) 2024 Anam Ghafoor, Tahira Sadaf, Ayesha Rouf, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal, Komal Azhar Sat, 15 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Market Size, Trade Openness, and Foreign Direct Investment in Selected Asian Countries <p>Developing economies have been observed variations in foreign direct investment inflows with having influx of multinational enterprises. The FDI may be affected by many socio-economic factors. However, this research highlights the role of market size (proxy of GDP per capita) as a key factor in determining foreign direct investment in some selected Asian economies. By using a panel data set of 12 Asian economies during the time span of 2009 to 2019, it is found that high economic growth attracts investment from foreign investors in Asian countries which has a vital importance for further growth and development. Dependent variable is used as foreign direct investment and independent variables are used as GDP per capita as proxy of market size, trade openness, fixed telephone subscriptions per 100 people and urban population in this analysis. The GMM results indicate that GDP per capita, trade openness and fixed telephone subscriptions per 100 people and urban population may result in attracting foreign direct investment in these economies. Our findings recommend for more export and production which will increase growth and attract more investment chances from international businesses.</p> Sana Rashid, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Bilal, Mudassar Yasin, Syed Awais Sajid Shah Copyright (c) 2024 Sana Rashid, Muhammad Umair, Muhammad Bilal, Mudassar Yasin, Syed Awais Sajid Shah Tue, 18 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Blended Learning on Student Performance <p>This study investigates the impact of blended learning on student performance, employing a quantitative research design. Blended learning, which integrates online and face-to-face instruction, has gained popularity due to its potential to enhance educational outcomes. The research focuses on a population of university students, drawing a sample size of 319 participants from diverse academic backgrounds. To gather data, a structured questionnaire was used as the primary research instrument, encompassing various aspects of student performance, including academic performance, engagement, and satisfaction. The questionnaire was validated through a pilot study involving 50 students, ensuring reliability and relevance. Data collection was conducted over a semester, with pre- and post-intervention assessments to measure changes in student performance. The findings indicate a significant improvement in academic performance among students engaged in blended learning compared to those in traditional learning environments. In conclusion, the research provides robust evidence supporting the adoption of blended learning to enhance student performance. These findings underscore the need for educational institutions to invest in and develop comprehensive blended learning programs, tailored to meet the diverse needs of students. Future research should explore long-term impacts and identify best practices for the effective implementation of blended learning strategies.</p> Bushra Tabassum, Muhammad Moin, Qaisar Abbas, Muhammad Ismail Kumbhar, Muhammad Hamid Nawaz Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Moin, Bushra Tabassum, Qaisar Abbas, Muhammad Ismail Kumbhar, Muhammad Hamid Nawaz Khan Fri, 28 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-Ecological Dynamics in Gilgit Baltistan: Insights of Human Geographic Perspectives <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">This study determines the complex linkage between the community and nature in Gilgit Baltistan, employing a mixed method of quantitative analysis, qualitative exploration, and comprehensive literature review. Through an extensive examination of existing research and on-the-ground observations, the research unravels the complicated environment of this region's geographical overview, environmental dynamics, and socio-economic capabilities. Notably, statistical analyses shed light on population trends, agricultural patterns, and demographic shifts, offering valuable insights into the region's developmental courses. Moreover, qualitative insights obtained from field visits uncovered the rich cultural heritage, linguistic diversity, and community perceptions embedded within the societal framework of Gilgit Baltistan. Geographic information system (GIS) is used to design the study maps of protected areas and transportation networks, unveiling the region's strategic significance and developmental potential. Among its key findings, the research underscores the pivotal role of transportation links, particularly the Karakoram Highway, in facilitating connectivity and economic development. Moreover, it highlights the emergence of Gilgit Baltistan as a vital gateway for the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), accentuating its growing importance in regional geopolitics and economic integration. In essence, this study offers a holistic understanding of the socio-economic landscape of Gilgit Baltistan, providing actionable insights for policymakers, development practitioners, and stakeholders aiming to foster sustainable growth and socio-economic prosperity in the region.</span></p> Muhammad Qasim, Najaf Ali, Syed Saqelain Haider, Iqra Zainab, Mukhtar Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Qasim, Najaf Ali, Syed Saqelain Haider, Iqra Zainab, Mukhtar Ali Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating Effects of Age on Sequential Syntactic and Morphological Development in Pakistani Second Language Learners <p class="006-JESS-Abstract" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span lang="EN-GB">Learning a second language, primary-level students find the process of developing syntax complex perhaps because they do not have sufficient awareness of the syntactic errors they commit at this early stage. Yet, there is a scarcity of studies on this domain to the best of our knowledge. Employing a mixed-method approach, the current study used tests, interviews, and observations to investigate the complexity of the developmental sequences with a particular emphasis on syntactic errors made by Pakistani learners of ESL. Analyzing the data quantitatively and qualitatively, the study caters to the common syntactic errors committed by Pakistani primary school students, including tense, subject-verb agreement, missing articles, conjunction, pronouns to infinitives, and word order. The study concluded that the sequential syntactic development in acquiring syntax is highly influenced by the factor of age perhaps because older children acquire syntax faster than younger ones. The study implicates to development of the second language at the primary level with a diverse age range. </span></p> Faiza Kiran, Maryam Jamil, Riffat Naz Copyright (c) 2024 Faiza Kiran, Riffat Naz, Maryam Jamil Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000