Journal of Education and Social Studies <p>Journal of Education and Social Studies (JESS) is an open access double blind peer reviewed online journal published by Science Impact Publishers. This journal aims to provide an opportunity and a forum to communicate relevant and current issues in the area of education and social sciences. The vast scope of the journal includes all subjects of education, sociology, psychology, journalism, law, human resource management, anthropology, economics, political science, population studies, international relations, religious studies, linguistics and history.</p> Science Impact Publishers en-US Journal of Education and Social Studies 2789-8067 Perception of Higher Secondary Schools Teachers towards Academic Performance of Students <p>The world is becoming more and more competitive and for the performance and personal progress is the key factor. A study was designed to know teachers' perceptions regarding students' performance at the higher secondary school level. All the higher secondary school students (male and female) were the population of the study. The higher secondary schools of district Toba Tek Singh were considered for the target population. The 80 teachers (40 male and 40 female) were chosen as a study sample proportionate from the 17 higher secondary schools. The collected data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics frequency and percentages with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The demographic characteristic of respondents shows that the vast majority of teachers have a graduate degree, and half of the teachers belong to the 25-50 age category and have up to 10 years experience, respectively. The teachers’ response indicated that students of higher secondary schools have confidence in asking and answering questions.</p> Sana Afzal Faiza Qayyum Copyright (c) 2021 Sana Afzal, Faiza Qayyum 2021-08-19 2021-08-19 2 2 41 46 10.52223/jess.20212201 An Investigation of Issues and Problems of Education System at Primary Level in District Toba Tek Singh <p class="1JEI-ABSTRACT"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">Primary schooling is the basic framework and first pillar of a child's future. Therefore, a study was planned to identify the core issues and difficulties related to education systems at the primary school level in district Toba Tek Singh. All the administration, staff, teachers, parents, and students were the study's target population. A mix methods research tools (interview and focus group discussion) were used to collect the data. The 20 public primary schools were selected and made a sample of 140 respondents through random technique. The interview was pretested on a small group of school administrators, students, and teachers from non-selected schools having similar subjects to evaluate the validity and reliability of the tool. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) in the form of mean, standard deviation, and percentage. The result showed that 69.3% of respondents belong to the 15-32 years age category, and the vast majority of participants stated that the literacy rate is not increasing as the population is due to poverty. The study recommended the policymakers that primary education is a basic pillar and should be better quality, well-trained teachers, proper funds provision, teacher-student ratio, and merit-based recruitment.</span></p> Ghulam Abbas Noor Muhammad Copyright (c) 2021 Ghulam Abbas, Noor Muhammad 2021-08-22 2021-08-22 2 2 47 51 10.52223/jess.20212202 Impact of Public Debt on Health and Education in SAARC Countries <p>The present study has done to investigate the impact of external debt servicing on health and education spending for the panel of selected SAARC countries (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) are basically developing countries of Asia. This study uses two models of education spending and the other is for health spending by using the data set for 1990-2016 and estimations are carried out by using fixed effect model. Beside other explanatory variables debt servicing is the most important determinant of education spending and health spending and confirm the literature view that high external debt leads to increase in debt servicing liabilities and government do repayment of debt servicing by cutting its expenditure especially on health and education spending as it is easy for government to cut down the social sector spending rather than other sector spending. Other variable Tax revenue and Gross Capital Formation also effect the health and education spending but debt servicing liability effect more. It is best for SAARC countries to use and organize their own resources efficiently and less dependence on external debt and on foreign borrowing and give high attention to education and health spending.</p> Hassan Tasleem Copyright (c) 2021 Hassan Tasleem 2021-08-24 2021-08-24 2 2 52 58 10.52223/jess.20212203 Teachers Perceptions about Reward Systems in Classroom <p class="1JEI-ABSTRACT" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">A Reward system is used to influence the people in any organization. In education, teachers are used rewards to influence students learning outcomes. Therefore, the present study was conducted to find out the teacher's perceptions about rewards in the classroom. All the teachers of the public primary school of district Toba Tek Singh were considered for the population of the study. A questionnaire was used as a research tool for collecting the opinion of respondents, including a five-point rating scale. A total of 200 teachers (100 male and 100 female) were selected as a sample from 100 public primary schools in Toba Tek Singh. Data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package of Social Sciences) through t-test, mean and standard deviation. It was concluded that most of the teachers agreed that reward encourages the students to move forward. It was also proved that the rewards system was significantly better towards learner’s achievement. It was also confirmed that most teachers improved their performance regarding their rewards system; therefore, it had a positive impact on achieving the targeted objectives.</span></p> <p> </p> Aisha Javed Noor Muhammad Copyright (c) 2021 Aisha Javed, Noor Muhammad 2021-08-27 2021-08-27 2 2 59 62 10.52223/jess.20212204 A Study of Teachers Views about the Students of Non-Formal Institutes <p class="1JEI-ABSTRACT" style="text-align: left;" align="left"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">Education plays a very crucial role in the development of child’s abilities, attitude, and behavior. It develops a positive change in the social life of the children. Therefore, many developed and developing nations highly encourage the spread of education through non-formal means. The non-formal education system is usually planned to provide effective knowledge and skills among the people. The present study was conducted with an aim to evaluate the views of non-formal institutions teachers about the students. This study was carried out in district Toba Tek Singh of Punjab province. The present study was descriptive in nature, and a survey was conducted to evaluate the non-formal education systems. All the non-formal educational institutions were the population of the study. The sample size of 50 teachers working in the non-formal educational institute of district Toba Tek Singh was chosen. The researcher for data collection developed a self-designed questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results of this study showed significant differences received from the respondents of non-formal education schools. The obtained results showed that respondents are getting good benefits from the non-formal education system. It is concluded from this study that education is very important for the development of any nation, and it is considered a fundamental human right.</span></p> Saima Riaz Mudassar Yasin Copyright (c) 2021 Saima Riaz, Mudassar Yasin 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 2 2 63 67 10.52223/jess.20212205