Assessing the Economic Impact of Tanneries’ Pollutants in Pakistan

Authors

  • Abdul Rehman Nawaz School of Economics, Faculty of Business, Economics and Administrative Sciences. University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Usama Anwar School of Economics, Faculty of Business, Economics and Administrative Sciences. University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Shafique Ahmad School of Economics, Faculty of Business, Economics and Administrative Sciences. University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52223/jei30221035

Keywords:

Agriculture, Chromium, Effluents, Industry, Leather, Pollution

Abstract

The leather industry, which is dubbed "Noxious" around the world, is an essential element of Kasur's industrial heritage. Hundreds of individuals in Kasur are directly or indirectly involved in the tanning of leather. The study's goal is to determine the effects of the environmental deterioration caused by tanneries on the economic lives of Kasur residents. Crop output declines due to the detrimental impacts of waste emissions on the surrounding soil, posing economic hazards.  The three most polluted areas of Kasur have been identified, and data from the study area is collected through In-depth Interviews from 30 potential respondents in those areas. The convenience sampling technique has been applied, while the Mix-method approach (qualitative and quantitative) is used for the analysis. It is found that toxic pollutants of tanneries have profound adverse effects on the animals’ health such as cattle, poultry, fisheries, and adverse effects have been found on the production of meat and milk. The study suggests that the dangers of chemicals have a negative impact on those who live near chemical plants, both physically and economically. It proposes relocating industries away from residential areas.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Aich, A., Goswami, A.R., Roy, U.S., Mukhopadhyay, S.K., 2015. Ecotoxicological assessment of tannery effluent using guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) as an experimental model: a biomarker study. J. Toxicol. Environ. Heal. Part A 78, 278–286.

Anbalagan, K., Karthikeyan, G., Narayanasamy, N., 1997. Assessing pollution from tannery effluents in a South Indian village. PLA notes 30, 3–6.

Bareen, F., Tahira, S.A., 2011. Metal accumulation potential of wild plants in tannery effluent contaminated soil of Kasur, Pakistan: field trials for toxic metal cleanup using Suaeda fruticosa. J. Hazard. Mater. 186, 443–450.

Barman, S.C., Sahu, R.K., Bhargava, S.K., Chaterjee, C., 2000. Distribution of heavy metals in wheat, mustard, and weed grown in Field irrigated with industrial effluents. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 64, 489–496.

Biswas, B., Hamada, T., 2012. Relation between Hazaribagh tannery industry development and Buriganga river pollution in Bangladesh. Int. J. Environ. 2, 117–127.

Boddy, C.R., 2016. Sample size for qualitative research. Qual. Mark. Res. 19, 426–432.

Calamari, D., Marchetti, R., Vailati, G., 1980. Influence of water hardness on cadmium toxicity to Salmo gairdneri Rich. Water Res. 14, 1421–1426.

Chandra, R., Bharagava, R.N., Yadav, S., Mohan, D., 2009. Accumulation and distribution of toxic metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica campestris L.) irrigated with distillery and tannery effluents. J. Hazard. Mater. 162, 1514–1521.

Cheung, K.H., Gu, J.-D., 2007. Mechanism of hexavalent chromium detoxification by microorganisms and bioremediation application potential: a review. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation 59, 8–15.

Dixit, S., Yadav, A., Dwivedi, P.D., Das, M., 2015. Toxic hazards of leather industry and technologies to combat threat: a review. J. Clean. Prod. 87, 39–49.

Dworkin, S.L., 2012. Sample size policy for qualitative studies using in-depth interviews. Arch. Sex. Behav. 41, 1319–1320. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-0016-6

Ghirardini, A.V., Novelli, A.A., Likar, B., Pojana, G., Ghetti, P.F., Marcomini, A., 2001. Sperm cell toxicity test using sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck (Echinodermata: Echinoidea): sensitivity and discriminatory ability toward anionic and nonionic surfactants. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. An Int. J. 20, 644–651.

Gottrfired, 1993. Biology today. Mosby-Year Book inc p. 22-26.

Gupta, A.K., Sinha, S., 2007. Phytoextraction capacity of the plants growing on tannery sludge dumping sites. Bioresour. Technol. 98, 1788–1794.

Gupta, S., Gupta, R., Tamra, R., 2007. Challenges faced by leather industry in Kanpur. A Proj. Rep. from IIT Kanpur.

Ilyas, M., Ahmad, W., Khan, H., Yousaf, S., Yasir, M., Khan, A., 2019. Environmental and health impacts of industrial wastewater effluents in Pakistan: a review. Rev. Environ. Health 34, 171–186.

Islam, M.O., Khan, H.R., Das, A.K., Akhtar, M.S., Oki, Y., Adochi, T., 2006. Impacts of industrial effluents on plant growth and soil properties. Soil Environ. 25, 113–118.

Kansal, B.D., Dhaliwal, G.S., 1994. Effects of domestic and industrial effluents on agricultural productivity. Management of agricultural pollution in India.

Khalil, S., Kakar, M.K., 2011. Agricultural use of untreated urban wastewater in Pakistan. Asian J. Agric. Rural Dev. 1, 21–26.

Kibria, G., Hossain, M.M., Mallick, D., Lau, T.C., Wu, R., 2016. Monitoring of metal pollution in waterways across Bangladesh and ecological and public health implications of pollution. Chemosphere 165, 1–9.

Lambin, P., Fertil, B., Malaise, E.P., Joiner, M.C., 1994. Multiphasic survival curves for cells of human tumor cell lines: induced repair or hypersensitive subpopulation? Radiat. Res. 138, S32–S36.

Losi, M.E., Amrhein, C., Frankenberger, W.T., 1994. Environmental biochemistry of chromium. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 136, 91–121.

Mahmood, S., Khalid, A., Mahmood, T., Arshad, M., Ahmad, R., 2013. Potential of newly isolated bacterial strains for simultaneous removal of hexavalent chromium and reactive black?5 azo dye from tannery effluent. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 88, 1506–1513.

Malterud, K., Siersma, V.D., Guassora, A.D., 2016. Sample size in qualitative interview studies: guided by information power. Qual. Health Res. 26, 1753–1760.

Matsumoto, S.T., Mantovani, M.S., Malaguttii, M.I.A., Dias, A.L., Fonseca, I.C., Marin-Morales, M.A., 2006. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluents, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root-tips. Genet. Mol. Biol. 29, 148–158.

Mishra, S., Bharagava, R.N., 2016. Toxic and genotoxic effects of hexavalent chromium in environment and its bioremediation strategies. J. Environ. Sci. Heal. Part C 34, 1–32.

Mohajer, A., Trémier, A., Barrington, S., Martinez, J., Teglia, C., Carone, M., 2009. Microbial oxygen uptake in sludge as influenced by compost physical parameters. Waste Manag. 29, 2257–2264.

Mohanta, M.K., Salam, M.A., Saha, A.K., Hasan, A., Roy, A.K., 2010. Effects of tannery effluents on survival and histopathological changes in different organs of Channa punctatus. Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci 1, 294–302.

Mottalib, M.A., Khan, T., Abser, M.N., 2014. A simple effective treatment of tannery effluents. J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci. 38, 235–239.

Reddy, V.R., Behera, B., 2006. Impact of water pollution on rural communities: An economic analysis. Ecol. Econ. 58, 520–537.

Sandelowski, M., 1995. Sample size in qualitative research. Res. Nurs. Health 18, 179–183.

Santos, J.A., Nunes, L., Melo, W.J., Araújo, A.S.F., 2011. Tannery sludge compost amendment rates on soil microbial biomass of two different soils. Eur. J. Soil Biol. 47, 146–151.

Saxena, G., Chandra, R., Bharagava, R.N., 2016. Environmental pollution, toxicity profile and treatment approaches for tannery wastewater and its chemical pollutants. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 240, 31–69.

Sundar, K., Vidya, R., Mukherjee, A., Chandrasekaran, N., 2010. High chromium tolerant bacterial strains from Palar River Basin: impact of tannery pollution. Res J Env. Earth Sci. 2, 112–117.

Tinni, S.H., Islam, M.A., Fatima, K., Ali, M.A., 2014. Impact of tanneries waste disposal on environment in some selected areas of dhaka city corporation. J. Environ. Sci. Nat. Resour. 7, 149–156.

Turick, C.E., Apel, W.A., Carmiol, N.S., 1996. Isolation of hexavalent chromium-reducing anaerobes from hexavalent-chromium-contaminated and noncontaminated environments. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 44, 683–688.

Ullah, R., Malik, R.N., Qadir, A., 2009. Assessment of groundwater contamination in an industrial city, Sialkot, Pakistan. African J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 3(12), 429-446.

UNIDO, 1991. Tanneries and the environment: a technical guide to reducing the environmental impact of tannery operations. Retrieved from https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/142870?ln=en.

Downloads

Published

2021-08-04

How to Cite

Nawaz, A. R., Anwar, U. and Ahmad, S. (2021) “ Assessing the Economic Impact of Tanneries’ Pollutants in Pakistan”, Journal of Economic Impact, 3(2), pp. 98–106. doi: 10.52223/jei30221035.

Issue

Section

Research Articles
Bookmark and Share