Critical Analysis of Rural Development Initiatives in Pakistan
Keywords:Rural poverty, Rural development initiatives, Rural support programmes, NGOs
Rural development agencies have been regarded as important performers in terms of influencing development policies and programmes in rural areas of the world. The main focus of these programmes is to uplift the living standard of the masses in rural areas through sustained growth in the rural economy. To improve the livelihoods of rural communities, the government has adopted various rural development programmes, but the majority of them left very little effect on the ground. Many of these programmes had been inspired by the western paradigm. Categorically the efforts to uplift the livelihood of rural population in the North-Western Pakistan, have gained little success. According to recent reports, about one third population of mountainous region is still facing the problem of food insecurity, poverty and hunger which results in economic and political instability. Considering this, the government has launched many rural development programmes but almost all of them were terminated after gaining little success. Although the overall approach was institutional in nature but it failed to promote institutional aspect of rural development. Leading constraints to the rural developmental strategies include shortage of funds, dominated status of bureaucracy and lack of coordination among the implementing agency and local community. Besides state owned programmes for rural development many non-government organizations (NGOs) are also involved on the theme of development that is participatory for the decades. Among those initiatives Agha Khan Rural Support Programme (AKRSP) remained quite successful in northern areas of Pakistan. However, rural development through participatory approach is still far behind the predicted results and these organizations are facing problems in delivering welfare services to the rural poor as they are being blame that they are working on western agenda.
Ade Freeman, H., Ellis, F., Allison, E., 2004. Livelihoods and rural poverty reduction in Kenya. Dev. policy Rev. 22, 147–171.
Adisa, R.S., 2012. Rural development in the 21st century as a global necessity. Rural Dev. issues Pract. InTech Publ. Rijeka, Croatia.
Akinola, M.O., Issa, F.O., Sanni, S.A., 2011. Agricultural extension systems in West Africa: Adoptable strategies for Nigeria’s agricultural extension reform agenda. J. Agric. Ext. 15, 1–7.
Al-Jayyousi, O., 2009. Islamic values and rural sustainable development. Rural 21 J. 43, 39-41.
Alkire, S., Foster, J., 2011. Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement. J. Public Econ. 95, 476–487.
Ashfaq, M., Griffith, G., Hussain, I., 2009. Economics of water resources in Pakistan: Water and Poverty. Pak. TM Printers, Pakistan.
Azizi, S.L., 1999. An Analysis of the social action program and education of women in Pakistan. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Bhutto, A.W., Bazmi, A.A., 2007. Sustainable agriculture and eradication of rural poverty in Pakistan, in: Natural Resources Forum. Wiley Online Library, pp. 253–262.
Brennan, M.A., 2009. IFAS Community development: The continuing importance of rural development. Gainesv. Univ. Florida IFAS Extension, FCS0242.
Chaudhary, K.M., 2002. Community infrastructure services programme (CISP): Human resource development manual. Department of Local Government and Rural Development, Government of Azad Jammun and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.
Chaudhry, I.S., Faridi, M.Z., Hanif, I., 2012. The whimsical trends of rural poverty in Pakistan: some diversifications. Int. Res. J. Financ. Econ. 83, 78–89.
Chaudhry, I.S., Malik, S., Ashraf, M., 2006. Rural poverty in Pakistan: some related concepts, issues and empirical analysis. Pak. Econ. Soc. Rev. 259–276.
Chaudhry, I.S., Rahman, S., 2009. The impact of gender inequality in education on rural poverty in Pakistan: an empirical analysis. Eur. J. Econ. Financ. Adm. Sci. 15, 174–188.
Davidson P.A., Ahmad, M., T. Ali, T., 2001. Dilemmas of agricultural extension in Pakistan: Food and thought, agricultural research and extension Network. On-line Research Paper No.116.
Davidson, A.P., Ahmad, M., 2017. Privatization and the crisis of agricultural extension: The case of Pakistan. Routledge.
Dragi?, L., Živkovi?, S.J., 2009. The role of knowledge, innovation and human capital in multifunctional agriculture and territorial rural development. Agric. Ext. Serv. Funct. Rural Dev. 2–3.
Ekong, E.E., 2010. Rural sociology. Dove Educ. Publ. Uyo Niger. 1–425.
Ellis, F., Biggs, S., 2001. Evolving themes in rural development 1950s?2000s. Dev. policy Rev. 19, 437–448.
FAO, 2021. FAOSTAT-Pakistan. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#country/165
Francis, N., David, A.K., 2012. The challenges of agriculture and rural development in Africa: the case of Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development 1(3), 45-61.
García, L.B., Dávila, J.P.M., López, F.G., 2008. Sustainable rural development: that distinguished stranger (a review). Rev. Científica 18, 43–50.
Gautam, Y., Andersen, P., 2016. Rural livelihood diversification and household well-being: Insights from Humla, Nepal. J. Rural Stud. 44, 239–249.
Ghafoor, A., Hussain, M., Naseer, K., Ishaque, M., Baloch, M.H., 2010. Factors affecting income and saving of small farming households in sargodha district of the Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Agric. Agric. Eng. Vet. Sci.
Government of Pakistan, 2021. Economic survey of Pakistan, Economic Advisor’s Wing, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Hafeez, N., Ashfaq, M., Sarwar, I., Bari, A., 2011. The contribution of crop income in reducing poverty and income inequality among different farm sizes: a comparison of cotton/wheat and barani Punjab. Pak. J. Agri. Sci 48, 155–158.
Haq, 2003. Human development in South Asia 2002. Published by Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan. pp. 24.
Hashmi, M.S., 2011. Land distribution, technological changes and productivity in pakistan’s agriculture: some explanations and policy options. Management 1, 51–74.
Hussain, S., Saddiqui, B.N., Mukhtar, Y., Hassan, M.Z.Y., 2003. Impact of loan facilities provided by Punjab Rural Support Program for poverty alleviation in farming communities of Faisalabad. Int. J. Agri. Biol 5, 658–659.
IFAD, 2011. Sector-wide approaches for agriculture and rural development: Policy. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Rome, Italy. www.ifad.org.
Ifeanyi-Obi, C.C., Etuk, U.R., Jike-Wai, O., 2012. Climate change, effects and adaptation strategies; implication for agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Greener J. Agric. Sci. 2, 53–60.
Ikram, A., Abdul, S., Sarfraz, A., 2010. A profile of regional contribution of rural poverty in Punjab: some hidden dynamics. Pakistan J. Life Soc. Sci. 8, 35–41.
Islam, N., 2007. Reducing poverty and hunger in Asia: the role of agricultural and rural development. Twenty twenty Focus briefs/International Food Policy Res. Inst. (IFPRI); 15.
Janjua, P.Z., Kamal, U.A., 2014. The role of education and health in poverty alleviation a cross country analysis. J. Econ. Manag. Trade 896–924.
Khan, A.R., Khan, A.N., 2001. An overview of rural development programmes and strategies in Pakistan. J. Rural Dev. Adm. 33, 22–29.
Lodhi, T.E., Luqman, M., Khan, G.A., 2006. Perceived effectiveness of public sector extension under decentralized agricultural extension system in the Punjab, Pakistan. J. Agric. Soc. Sci. 2,195-200.
Luqman, M., Ahmed, K., Ashraf, M., Khan, Z.I., 2007. Effectiveness of decentralized agriculture extension system in Pakistan, in: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings. pp. 1465–1472.
Luqman, M., Ashraf, S., Shahbaz, B., Butt, T.M., Saqib, R., 2021. Rural development through non-state actors in highlands of Pakistan. SAGE Open 11, 21582440211007130.
Luqman, M., Saqib, R., Karim, M., Nawab, K., Rehman, A., Yaseen, M., 2018. Socio-economic impacts of agro-forestry on livelihoods of rural households in southern region of the Punjab, Pakistan. Sarhad J. Agric 34, 880–887.
Majeed, H.A., Munir, A., Muhammad, L., 2006. Attitude of farmers towards extension work conducted by the PRSP Field Unit, Muzaffargarh (Pakistan). J. Agric. Soc. Sci. 2, 120–121.
Mashreque, M.S., Nasrullah, A.M., 2005. Rural development in Bangladesh: concepts, dimensions and significance. Pakistan J. Soc. Sci. 3, 210–215.
McMichael, P., 2009. A food regime genealogy. J. Peasant Stud. 36, 139–169.
Munawar, M., Shiwei, X., Wen, Y., Luqman, M., 2021. Resilience to food insecurity among rural households in the Punjab, Pakistan. Sarhad J. Agric. 37, 754–762.
Nadeem, N., Mushtaq, K., 2012. Role of agricultural research and extension in enhancing agricultural productivity in Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Life Soc. Sci. 10, 67–73.
Neglo, K.A.W., Gebrekidan, T., Lyu, K., 2021. The Role of agriculture and non-farm economy in addressing food insecurity in Ethiopia: A Review. Sustainability 13, 3874.
Ngeh, D.B., 2013. Non-governmental organizations (NGOS) and rural development in nigeria. Mediterr. J. Soc. Sci. 4, 107.
Nlerum, F.E., 2013. Review of evaluation models for determining impact of rural development projects. Spanish J. Rural Dev. 4,1-8.
Rantšo, T.A., 2016. The role of the non-farm sector in rural development in Lesotho. J. Mod. Afr. Stud. 54, 317–338.
Rehman, F., 2005. Rural development in the mountainous areas of Pakistan: Integration of village organizations in the planning process: some observations from Astor Valley, Northern Pakistan. J. Rural Dev. Adm. 36, 37–65.
Sadaf, S., Muhammad, S., Lodhi, T.E., 2005. Need for agricultural extension services for rural women in Tehsil Faisalabad, Pakistan. J. Agric. Soc. Sci. 1, 248-251.
Saqib, R., Luqman, M., Javed, I., Rehman, A., Yaseen, M., Ashraf, S., Majeed, M.Z., 2019. Livelihood strategies of small-scale farmers in Pakistan in the scenario of climate change. Sarhad J. Agric. 35, 1298-1308.
Shahbaz, B., Mbeyale, G., Haller, T., 2008. Trees, trust and the state: A comparison of participatory forest management in Pakistan and Tanzania. J. Int. Dev. J. Dev. Stud. Assoc. 20, 641–653.
Shrestha, L., Upreti, B.R., 2011. Reflection on land-based relationship between agrarian tension, armed conflict and human insecurity in Nepal. Land, Agric. Agrar. Transform. 57.
Singh, A.S., 2007. Agriculture and rural development in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region The Important Nexus.
Tajima, S., 1994. Typological analyses of agricultural extension systems. In Agricultural Extension Systems in Asia and the Pacific: Report of an APO Study Meeting, 15th-25th June, 1993, Tokyo, Japan. Asian Productivity Organization, p. 33.
Thapa, N., 2012. Impact of climate change on food security: A case of Dailekh district, Nepal. Participation 14(13), 49-58.
Turunen, J., Snäkin, J., Panula-Ontto, J., Lindfors, H., Kaisti, H., Luukkanen, J., Magistretti, S., Mang, C., 2010. Livelihood Resilience and Food Security in Cambodia—Results from a Household Survey. Helsinki, Finl. Futur. Reserach Cent.
UNAIDS, 2001. The assessment and mitigation of the impact of transport infrastructure and services on the spread of HIV/AIDS. Retrieved from: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12870/2977.
UNDP, 2020. Charting pathways out of multidimensional poverty: Achieving the SDGs. United Nations Development Programme and Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative. Development Policy Unit, Islamabad, Pakistan.
UNDP, 2021. Multidimensional poverty in Pakistan. United Nations Development Programme for Pakistan. Development Policy Unit, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Wandschneider, T., Davis, J.R., 2003. Best practice and strategies for promoting rural non-farm employment through project interventions (NRI report no. 2756).
Ward, C., Dargought, S., Minasyan, G., Gambarelli, G., 2005. Reneging in agricultural water management: challenges, opportunities and trade-offs. Agric. Rural Dev. (ARD), World Bank, Washingt. DC, USA.
Weber, B., Jensen, L., Miller, K., Mosley, J., Fisher, M., 2005. A critical review of rural poverty literature: Is there truly a rural effect? Int. Reg. Sci. Rev. 28, 381–414.
Welteji, D., 2018. A critical review of rural development policy of Ethiopia: access, utilization and coverage. Agric. Food Secur. 7, 1–6.
World Bank, 2007. Pakistan promoting rural growth and poverty reduction. Report No. 39303-PK. Sustainable and Development Unit, South Asia Region.
World Bank. 2018. Poverty and Equity Database. In: The World Bank [online]. Washington, DC.
World Bank, 2021. Pakistan - Macro Poverty Outlook. Retrieved from: https://bit.ly/3jCfxF8.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Luqman, Muhammad Umer Mehmood, Muhammad Farooq, Tariq Mehmood, Muhammad Waqar, Muhammad Yaseen, Mukkram Ali Tahir
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.